GENERAL HISTORY OF WINE
Each of us at least once tasted wine. However, not everyone is familiar with the history of winemaking. Although this drink is considered one of the oldest and the history of its origin is very interesting.
The first mentions of wine were found in Georgia. On clay jugs dating from about 6 thousand years BC, vines were depicted. Other evidence of winemaking was found in the southern Caucasus between the Tigris and the Euphrates on the Nile River. Also in Palestine. The most interesting find was the vessel, at the bottom of which found hardened remains of wine. The vessel was made for 5400-5000 BC! Found him in Iran.
We can say that the development of winemaking and civilization went in parallel. The ancient Egyptians were professionals in this field. This is evidenced by the paintings of different scenes found during the excavations of tombs – grape care, harvesting, and wine making. Most interestingly, the ancient Egyptians celebrated the harvest year and the name of the owner exactly as we do today.
In the Epic of Gilgamesh, dated around 1800 BC, there is a reference to wine. The poem describes a person who did not drink anything and ate exclusively vegetable food. Once he was offered to drink wine. So the author describes his state: “I felt bliss, and his heart was filled with joy.” The oldest book of humanity – the Bible – also contains a reference to wine. According to experts, it is mentioned in the texts 521 times.
Not to mention the ancient Greeks. One of the legends tells how the god Dionysus taught Ikaria, a resident of Attica, to grow grapes and make a drink from it. Another legend is about a dog that has gotten crushed by a grape bush. The dog belonged to Orisfey, who planted this bush and since then began to grow grapes. The third legend says that the vine was found by a sheep, which was constantly separated from the herd and returned home after all. The shepherd Stafylos once decided to follow her and saw that she was eating the fruits of an unknown plant. Stafylos gathered some fruits and carried them to his master Oinolis. In turn, Oynolis noticed that the juice obtained from the fruits of an unknown plant, over time, changes the taste and has hoping properties. He decided to bring it as a gift to the god Dionysus, who later taught him winemaking.
The inhabitants of the east – the Chinese – are sure that the first wines of the hospital are from their own country. Proof of this are the legends about the god Yu, who encouraged winemaking. The Persian legend tells about the origin of wine and mentions King Jamshid. In the Basque legend, a hero named Ano is mentioned that he brought the first grapevine.
Interestingly, the French, who are currently famous for their skills in the field of winemaking, do not talk about any historical facts.
It can be concluded that wine exists on our planet for more than 5 thousand years. Wine has two sides. It has the ability to cure various diseases, but, with careless use, it can destroy a person. Wine is joy and fun, but at the same time, it is grief and vice. In the history of mankind, because of wine, war was born. Some famous works of art were born out of wine. It can be said that wine affected a number of major events.
Wine has a mythological meaning, it is a sign of fertility, it is compared with human blood. For example, Jesus Christ said, “This is my blood,” and took the cup of wine. The joy of life was wine for the ancient Egyptians. The Greek god Zeus himself patronized wine making.
Religions of the world relate differently to wine. Christians identify wine with the blood of the Lord, Muslims do not encourage the use of this drink, Buddha urges to refrain from strong drinks, Judaism allows only kosher wines to be consumed.
There are many different opinions about wine. Louis Pasteur said that “wine can rightfully be considered the healthiest and most hygienic drink.” The wife of the Roman emperor Augustus, Empress Livia, believed that it was the use of wine that helped her live to 82 years. Even the great Julius Caesar in the “Comments” talked about wine. Wine had its influence on politics. Love for port served as an ally for England and Portugal.
People still argue about the benefits of wine. But this dispute is unlikely to be over by anyone. And why answer the question “Is it harmful or useful?”. Wine brings happiness and, at the same time, can destroy a person. It all depends on how the person himself refers to the use of wine.
The modern history of wine dates back to the beginning of the first millennium AD. At that time there were more than 80 varieties of wine. Today, many countries in the world produce a huge amount of different wines. In France, the headquarters of the International Organization of Vine and Wine is located. This organization already unites 45 countries of the world.